Uttar Pradesh is the fourth largest state by land area and it is the most populous state in India.
I can say that it has a huge potential in solar residential sector.
It is bounded by:
We see Himalayan Ranges in the North, Indo-Gangetic plains in the centre, and Vindhya hills and plateau in the south.
The main Industries in the state are Agriculture, Livestock and Farming.
The majority of population depends on farming activities and the main crops are wheat, rice, pulses, sugar cane (most important cash crop), and potatoes.
Peak Sun Hours in Uttar Pradesh
Its location is very good from the sunlight point of view.
It is a big state that is comprised of 75 districts and the Peak Sun Hours (PSH) vary with the change in the latitude.
Therefore, I will take 5 districts located in 5 different directions of the states namely: East, West, North, South and the Centre.
When I take the average of all PSH values mentioned above, it is:
PSH (avg.) = (5.48 + 5.47 + 5.81 + 5.53 + 5.43)/5
= 5.544 PSH
I will take this value to evaluate the financial feasibility of the solar power system in Uttar Pradesh.
Uttar Pradesh climate
Uttar Pradesh comes in the tropical region and hence it has a tropical climate with 3 main seasons namely:
Temperature in summer can rise as high as 45°C and in winters the mercury usually dips to 2°C - 3°C.
Read: Best solar panels for hot climate
Snowfall doesn’t occur but hailstorm, frost and dew are common in winters.
Residential electricity rates in Uttar Pradesh
The UPPCL is the state electricity company which transmits and distributes the electricity in the state.
This company has the following divisions:
It is very important to know the electricity rates within the state to analyze and evaluate the feasibility of the solar power in comparison with the grid electricity rates.
The electricity rates for the domestic users are as follows:
Units produced by 5-kW system in Uttar Pradesh
The units produced by the solar power system depends on many factors such as:
After considering all the above losses, the units produced by the 5-kW system in Uttar Pradesh are 19 to 20 units per day.
The average price of solar in Uttar Pradesh
The average cost of 1 kW on-grid solar power is Rs. 80,000 to Rs. 90,000.
However, the cost of any solar power system depends on many factors such as:
The cost of the solar panels depends on their quality.
The monocrystalline solar panels are costly, very efficient, and fewer panels can meet the energy needs.
On the other hand, the polycrystalline solar panels are less efficient, occupy more space but are cheaper.
The solar panel is the main component in any system and choosing the quality solar panel can provide you smooth electricity for decades.
I would advise my readers that go for a reputed and branded solar panel company.
Some of the reputed solar brands of India such as Waaree,Vikram, Adani produce efficient, durable, and strong solar panels that have long warranties.
Inverter plays an important role in running our electrical appliances.
It converts direct current from the solar panels into alternating current and run our electrical appliances.
Therefore, the conversion efficiency and the waveform of the inverter determine its quality.
The efficiency of the inverter is its ability of converting direct current into alternating current.
It can be written as:
Efficiency (%) = Output current (ac)/Input current (dc) x 100 %
The efficient solar inveters are costly but you get more current to run your house hold appliances.
We see inverters producing 2 different waveforms (i) square wave and (ii) sine wave
Your electrical appliances run smoothly and produces less heat with sine wave inverters.
Choose efficient sinewave inverter for your solar power system.
Read: How to choose the right inverter?
The cost of the racking and the mounting structure depends on the quality, direction and type of the roof.
The other costs like profit margin of the installer, permits, transportation and miscellaneous costs add up the total cost of the system.
Solar Subsidy in Uttar Pradesh
The solar energy subsidy is the financial incentive offered by the central government and the state government on the cost of the solar power system installed by the home-owners
The solar subsidy scheme:
How to apply for solar subsidy in Uttar Pradesh
a) Go to UPNEDA solar rooftop portal
be ready with your documents such as:
b) Click on “Apply online” tab, fill the required information in the form and submit.
c) You will receive an OTP on your registered mobile number
d) After filling the OTP, your application will be registered and you will get an application id with a password.
e) Upload your documents by Log in with your id and password
After that you get 120 days window period to choose the pre-screened solar installer, get the installation done, net meter installed and get inspected by the discom/UPNEDA officer and upload the details on the website.
How to apply for Net-meter in Uttar Pradesh
The net-metering facility allows the home-owner to feed the extra solar electricity generated to the grid.
The extra units are deducted from your consumed units and you are billed for the remaining units.
fed to the grid and you are billed by deducting extra units fed from your consumed units.
For example, your solar power system produced a total of 600 units in a month.
you consumed a total of 900 units from grid and 200 solar units from solar in 1 month.
Extra solar units produced = 600 – 200 units = 400 units
These extra 400 solar units will be fed to the grid and you will be billed on net consumed units (500 units).
Net consumed units = 900 – 400 solar units = 500 units
And your electricity bill is reduced.
Are solar panels worth in Uttar Pradesh?
Yes, the solar power system is very much profitable in Uttar Pradesh with the following parameters:
Factors affecting solar payback in Uttar Pradesh
There are number of factors that determines the payback period of the solar power system in Uttar Pradesh.
And these are:
i) Sunlight is the first parameter that decides the feasibility of the solar power system. Good sunlight means you need fewer panels (less cost) to meet your energy needs.
While less sunlight, you need more panels to fulfill the same energy requirements and you need to shell out more money for that, affecting the financial feasibility of the system.
ii) The high cost of the system reduces the return from the solar power system
iii) High maintenance cost affect the return provided by the solar power system. The battery in the system adds the maintenance cost.
iv) There are number of losses in the system such as heat losses, conversion losses, and transmission that affects the financial feasibility.
Therefore, one should choose quality products and the components for sizing the complete solar power system.
More losses mean less output, affecting the return from the solar power system.
v) The high electricity rates improves the feasibility of the solar power system.
Because a place with high grid rates mean you are going to save more when you switch to solar.
vi) Good incentives and rebates improve the return provided by the system.
Best solar panels for Uttar Pradesh Climate
The state lies in the tropical region where the mercury soars to 45°C, making solar cells to work at 70°C to 80°C.
In addition, the Indo-gangetic region is more humid than other parts of the state.
The main activities in the state are agriculture, farming, and livestock.
Therefore, we should look for solar panels that:
Advantages of Solar in Uttar Pradesh
a) Good sunlight is the first requirement for any solar power system to be technically viable and financially feasible.
Most parts of Uttar Pradesh receive good amount of sunlight throughout the year with an average PSH of 5.544 that we calculated above.
b) Uttar Pradesh government and the centre offers subsidy on the solar power systems, making it more attractive financially.
c) The grid Price and escalation are making switching to solar more attractive.
The average domestic grid prices in Uttar Pradesh are Rs.6 to Rs.7 per unit and escalation of 5%.
It means that you would pay Rs. 20 to Rs. 24 in the 25th for the same unit you consumed today.
Looking at this, it makes sense switching to solar.
Disadvantages of solar in Uttar Pradesh
High temperature in summers increases the cell temperature by another 30°C to 40°C.
(The solar cells might be performing at 70°C to 80°C when the ambient temperature is 45°C).
This increases the cell resistance and you get less current to run your electrical appliances.
The humidity during rainy season blocks the sunlight reaching the panel surface and corrodes its material, reducing its useful life.
Although the above disadvantages can be handled by purchasing solar panels with low temperature coefficient of power that are humidity resistant.
Yes, the solar power system is technically viable and financially attractive in Uttar Pradesh that has a fast payback.
I have considered all the relevant factors while evaluating the financial feasibility of the system.
Despite, a deviation of 10 to 15% on either side is possible while finding the financial feasibility of the system.
It is better to consult the nearest (experienced and trusted) solar installer in your area.
He is the best person to guide you about the system size and its feasibility based on your energy needs.
You can try my solar feasibility spreadsheet that designs the complete solar power system and finds the financial feasibility.
I hope this post gives you the reason for going solar.