After learning the basic concepts and the functioning of the solar panels and the solar charge controllers, now it is the time to understand the functioning of the inverter, the other important component in your solar power system.
This conversion from direct current to the alternating current is done by the inverter.
As you know that the electricity produced or provided by the solar panels are DC (Direct current) in nature and most of our home appliances run on AC (Alternating current) current. There should be an interface which can convert the direct current from the solar panels into the alternating current to run our home appliances like fans, tube lights, fridges and televisions etc.
(1) Types of current
First of all, let us understand the basic difference between these two types of current. The direct current has the constant value of current while the value of current in case of the alternating current keeps on changing or it alternates between the maximum value and the minimum value with respect to time.
(2) The components of the inverter
The basic inverter consists of the following parts:
(3) Functioning of the inverter
Basically, an inverter does three main activities:
Take a magnet and a coil, and start rotating magnet near the coil, a current will be generated in the coil, the reason is that the varying magnetic field with respect to the time will induce the current in the coil. When one pole of the magnet reaches closest to the coil the current induced in the coil will have the maximum value and it will keep on deceasing as the magnet starts going away from it. Also, when the opposite pole starts reaching close, the current in the coil will change its direction. When this process is repeated, an alternating current is induced or produced in the coil. This alternating current produces its own magnetic field. No current will be induced when the magnet is static.
So, we need a changing magnetic field to induce alternating current in the coil.
Can an alternating current in one coil produce or induce an alternating current in other coil, placed near to it?
Yes, the alternating current in one coil will generate varying magnetic field, and the coil which is placed near to it will come under the influence of the varying magnetic field and the current will be induced in it.
(i) Function of an oscillator: